Lacto refers to lactic acid
Lactic acid-producing bacteria (LABs), primarily Lactobacilli
Anaerobic (air /oxygen-free) environment
Bacteria convert sugars into lactic acid
Inhibits harmful bacteria
Acts as a preservative
Characteristic sour flavor
Botulism does not occur in anything that is sufficiently acidic.
Inhospitable environment – Clostridium botulinum + other pathogenic bacteria.
Salmonella and E. coli cannot proliferate in harsh environments
LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION
Pickles + all fermented vegetables
Yeast converts glucose to alcohol and carbon dioxide.
CO2 makes things bubble. The ethanol makes us merry.
(2 stage Microbial biotransformation)
(1) yeasts transform sugars within the juice into alcohol.
(2) AAB transformation of ethanol alcohol into acetic acid
Apple Cider Vinegar
BACTERIA / YEAST FERMENTS **
Tibicos (water kefir)
Ginger Beer Plant
Koji ( miso, sake and mirin)
Familiar Food Fermentation
* Some ferments have multiple kinds of fermentation happening at different times, or even overlapping.
** Not an actual term, nor is it a true “type” of fermentation.
Why ferment foods?
Fermented foods or functional foods …
Adds microbes to the gut
Increase levels of vitamins in food
Makes food more digestible
Improves unpalatable raw
Extends shelf life
Fun, easy + inexpensive!
Leuconostoc mesenteroides initiates sauerkraut fermentation.
Produce carbon dioxide
Anaerobic bacteria begin producing an acidic environment
Lactic acids reach between .25 and .3%,
Leuconostoc mesenteroides slow down and die off, enzymes continue to function.
1-3 days, depending on temperature.
Likes a temperature range of 65-72° F.
Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus cucumeris – lactic acid level of 1.5-2% is attained.
Aerobically will produce acetic acid (vinegar)
Making sauerkraut, oxygen must be avoided
Fermentation of cabbage via lactic acid.
Acid level too high for some bacteria, friendly bacteria to become dominant.
Continues 10-30 days, again, depending on temperature.
Prefer temperature of 72° F – 90° F.
Lactobacillus brevis (some include Lactobacillus pentoaceticus) finish off the ferment.
Lactic acid 2-2.5%, reaching maximum growth and ferment is finished.
Final stage lasts approximately 1 week, depending on temperature.
Same temperature range of 72° F – 90° F.
Fermentation is a simple process.
To answer ? always think … Health Benefits + Taste
NO PREVIOUS BRINE … just time!
PICKLES …Fresh brine each time!
WHEY …. NO WAY!
WHAT REQUIRES A STARTER?
LIKE WITH LIKE – exception Eggs and Meat
NO Spoiled Food.
QUALITY produce (fresh and chemical-free)
CLEAN WATER / Bok choy
FOOD ALWAYS TO REMAIN UNDER THE BRINE … Cover in brine and all will be fine!!!
DO NOT DISTURB / as little as possible
You got it!!!
Let’s ferment together!